Gentlemen`s Agreement Canada
Japan has agreed to limit the number of passports it has provided to workers and domestic workers to 400 per year. Four classes of immigrants would still be allowed to enter Canada: returning residents and their wives, children and parents; Immigrants employed by Japanese residents in Canada for personal and domestic services; Canadian government-approved workers; and contracted farm labour by Japanese landowners in Canada. Although no specific legislation has been adopted to enforce the quota, the agreement has resulted in a significant reduction in Japanese immigration. In the year following the agreement, only 495 Japanese immigrants arrived in Canada.  Japan was prepared to restrict immigration to the United States, but was seriously injured by San Francisco`s discriminatory law, which specifically targeted its people. President Roosevelt, who wanted to maintain good relations with Japan as a pole opposed to Russian expansion in the Far East, intervened. While the U.S. ambassador reassured the Japanese government, Roosevelt summoned the mayor and the San Francisco school board to the White House in February 1907 and convinced him to end segregation and promised that the federal government itself would address the issue of immigration. On February 24, the gentlemen`s agreement was reached with Japan in the form of a Japanese memo, in which it was agreed to deny passports to workers wishing to enter the United States and to recognize the right of the United States to exclude Japanese immigrants with passports initially issued to other countries. March 13, 1907 followed the formal withdrawal of the San Francisco School Board`s decision. A final Japanese note, dated February 18, 1908, made the gentlemen`s agreement fully effective. The agreement was replaced by the Immigration Exclusion Act of 1924.
This led to the declaration of a gentlemen`s agreement between the governments of Canada and Japan, which limits the number of immigrants to less than 400 per year. The agreement was revised in 1923 and 1928, further reducing the number of authorized immigrants. A gentlemen`s agreement, or gentleman`s agreement, is an informal and legally non-binding agreement between two or more parties. It is usually oral, but it can be written or simply understood as part of a tacit agreement by convention or by mutually beneficial label. The essence of a gentlemen`s agreement is that it depends on the honour of the parties for its achievement, rather than being enforceable in one way or another. It differs from a legal agreement or a contract. On the west coast, an intense anti-Japanese atmosphere developed. U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt did not want to anger Japan by passing laws banning Japanese immigration to the United States, as had happened with Chinese immigration. Instead, there was an informal „gentlemen`s agreement“ (1907-1908) between the United States and Japan, in which Japan ensured that there was little or no movement in the United States.
The agreements were concluded by U.S. Secretary of State Elihu Root and Japanese Secretary of State Tadasu Hayashi. The agreement banned the emigration of Japanese workers to the United States and repealed the order of segregation of the San Francisco School Board in California, which had humiliated and angered the Japanese. The agreement did not apply to the territory of Hawaii, which was then treated as separate and separate from the United States. The agreements remained in effect until 1924, when Congress banned all immigration from Japan.  Similar anti-Japanese sentiments in Canada led simultaneously to Hayashi Lemieux`s agreement, also known as the Gentlemen`s Agreement of 1908, with substantially similar clauses and effects.