City Twinning Agreement

37 Given both cooperation agreements and real declarations and flows of people and goods, Polish local governments have the most links with partners from advanced western European countries, geographically close to poland and with intense social and economic contacts with Poland. In addition, natural severity can be observed towards neighbours close to the border (including the maritime border), particularly in the border area. As a result, the cooperating units were mainly north, west and south of Poland. 14The closure of the borders due to the political crisis of the early 1980s, including the introduction of martial law (1981-1982), led to the disappearance of all contacts, but after 1983, cooperation slowly returned to pre-1980 levels. During this period, contacts were generally limited to civil servants and legal organizations (for example. B Scout exchanges with the USSR) within the communist bloc. W. Zelinsky (1991) reports on nearly 117 bilateral agreements concluded by Polish municipalities with partners in 26 countries in 1988. Note that the list is probably still incomplete, as there is no canonical list of such agreements; Cities that are listed may also have agreements that are not mentioned here.

Each partnership agreement should be on the list in two places: one for each of the cities participating in the agreement. 10The first part of the document presents the historical evolution of city twinning in Poland and describes the current state of the links. In addition, the main factors influencing the choice and establishment of bilateral partnerships, as well as barriers to cooperation, will be analysed. The next part of the document presents the material and immaterial implications of cooperation, with a particular focus on people and the exchange of goods. Finally, the reasons for the height and direction of the exchange are analysed. 26The „Other“ category was most frequently mentioned by the municipalities of the border regions, which stressed the geographical proximity, the need to establish new border crossing points, the resolution of the environmental problems of the common functional area or the territorial development of areas divided by the national border. The activity of Polish immigrants and Polish minorities abroad, as well as foreign minorities in Poland, played the least important role in the creation of partnerships. Both groups were more important for inter-regional cooperation. Commercial contacts were more frequent in border contacts, but in general they did not have much importance in establishing partnership contacts.